More than 12 million Muslims have effectively been taken prisoner in their own homeland, an area of north-west China officially referred to as Xinjiang, which means “New Dominion”. For tens of thousands, some estimate as many as one million, the imprisonment is literal. Concerned Xinjiang scholars, such as myself, have helped document and expose the crisis unfolding there through simple but tedious research requiring hundreds of hours scouring Chinese government documents and satellite imagery. Partly as a result of these efforts, a network of huge “concentration re-education centres” in the desert has been revealed. Government officials – who until recently angrily denied their existence – now insist those centres are providing essential vocational training for individuals influenced by the so-called “three evil forces” of extremism, radicalism, and terrorism said to threaten stability in the region.